This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Radioactive isotope of tin confirmed to have doubly magic nucleus (2010, May 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-05-radioactive-isotope-tin-doubly-magic.html Protons and neutrons in nuclei occupy orbital shells in a similar way to electrons in atoms. Nuclear magic numbers were first identified in 1948 by Maria Goeppert-Mayer, who shared in the 1963 Nobel prize for physics for her work on developing the nuclear shell model. Nuclear magic numbers are the numbers of nucleons (protons or neutrons) that form full (closed) outer shells in an atomic nucleus, like the magic numbers of electrons in helium, neon and other noble (super-stable) gases. The magic numbers for nuclei are 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126, while for electrons the magic numbers are 2, 8, 18, 32, and 50.Magic proton or neutron numbers give the nucleus greater stability and stronger binding, and are therefore usually more common than nuclei with unfilled orbital shells. In doubly magic nuclei both proton and neutron shells are filled, leading to even stronger binding and stability. The outer shells of doubly magic nuclei are rigidly spherical.Other confirmed doubly magic nuclei include helium-4, oxygen-16, lead-208, calcium-49, and nickel-48, which are abundant and stable, and nickel-56, which was discovered in 1998 and is less stable than the others, having a half-life of just 5.9 days. Tin-132 is even more unstable with a half-life of only four seconds, which has made confirmation of its doubly magic nature difficult. It has 50 protons and 82 neutrons, and is the first confirmed doubly magic isotope that is both neutron-rich and radioactive.Kate Jones, from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, Tennessee, and her colleagues used a cyclotron reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory dating from the 1950s to carry out the experiments. Jones said they were excited to have managed the feat, when most people thought it would not be possible until newer facilities were available.One method used to identify doubly magic nuclei has been to strip neutrons from the isotope and examine the properties of the stripped-off neutrons to infer the structure of the nucleus. To do this a film is made of the isotope in question, and this is then hit with a beam of deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen having one proton and one neutron).Tin-132’s extremely short half-life made this process impossible, so Jones and her team reversed it, using the isotope as the firing beam instead of as the film being hit. They accelerated a beam of tin-132 to about 10 percent of the speed of light and fired it at a target of deuterated polyethylene. As the tin-132 collides with the target some of the neutrons are stripped from the deuterium molecules to form tin-133, leaving the deuterium proton to fall back to the target. The researchers then analyzed the energy and angular distribution of the particles and were able to confirm the stripped neutron fell into a separate orbital shell above the closed inner shells of tin-132, which means the nucleus must be robustly spherical as expected for a doubly magical nucleus.The research findings will help physicists studying what is called the R-process, which is thought to be the process by which over half the elements heavier than iron are created through a series of neutron captures on seed nuclei such as nickel-56, probably in neutron star mergers or in collapsing supernovae.The research paper is published in the journal Nature. Explore further © 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Scientists in the U.S. and U.K. have demonstrated that the short-lived radioactive and neutron-rich isotope tin-132 has a doubly magic nucleus. Physicists pin down the proton-halo state in Flourine-17 More information: The magic nature of 132Sn explored through the single-particle states of 133Sn, Nature 465, 454-457 (27 May 2010) doi:10.1038/nature09048
Molecular orbitals represent regions in a molecule where an electron is likely to be found; they are derived using mathematical formulas and are represented by cloudlike drawings with multiple nodes that are supposed to represent where electrons can go and are meant to demonstrate how molecules can share those electrons in chemical interactions or bonding. Since it was first invented in 1981, using the STM has generally been the best method available for creating images of individual atoms and their electronic properties. The STM is basically a piece of equipment with a metal appendage that has a tip width of just a few atoms. The tip is moved back and forth in the air very close to a sample being studied. Voltage is then applied allowing electrons to move between the tip and the sample. Doing so allows for measuring of the density of electrons on the surface of the material being studied which is then used to build the models.Unfortunately however, traditional STM has not been able to map orbitals of single molecules. This is because the density of electrons on the surface of an object, don’t give up the mathematical orbital nor does it have a fine enough resolution. Also there is the problem of having to place the sample on a metal surface which can hide what is going on with the molecules that comprise the sample. In the new approach the team solved the easiest part of the problem by coating the surface that the sample lays on with salt. Next, to improve resolution, they stuck a single carbon monoxide molecule on the end of the tip; this because carbon monoxide molecules have the property of having its outermost lobes paired close, with one positive the other negative phased. Such an arrangement makes the tip more sensitive to the sample material placed below it. Using this method the researchers were able to map the structure of the nodes of the molecular orbitals which allowed them to create images based on the places that held electrons. © 2011 PhysOrg.com More information: High-Resolution Molecular Orbital Imaging Using a p-Wave STM Tip, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 086101 (2011) DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.086101AbstractIndividual pentacene and naphthalocyanine molecules adsorbed on a bilayer of NaCl grown on Cu(111) were investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy using CO-functionalized tips. The images of the frontier molecular orbitals show an increased lateral resolution compared with those of the bare tip and reflect the modulus squared of the lateral gradient of the wave functions. The contrast is explained by tunneling through the p-wave orbitals of the CO molecule. Comparison with calculations using a Tersoff-Hamann approach, including s- and p-wave tip states, demonstrates the significant contribution of p-wave tip states.via Physics Viewpoint Experiments Prove Existence of Atomic Chain Anchors This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Citation: Research team devises better method for mapping orbitals of molecules (2011, August 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-team-method-orbitals-molecules.html (PhysOrg.com) — A team of physicists comprised of members from IBM Research in Switzerland and the University of Liverpool in the U.K. have figured out a way to improve on results obtained using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) that allows for the orbitals of single molecules to be mapped. They have published a paper on Physical Review Letters describing their procedure.
Citation: Researchers find similarities in the way birds and babies learn to ‘talk’ (2013, May 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-05-similarities-birds-babies.html Explore further Credit: CDC.gov © 2013 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen More information: Stepwise acquisition of vocal combinatorial capacity in songbirds and human infants, Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12173AbstractHuman language, as well as birdsong, relies on the ability to arrange vocal elements in new sequences. However, little is known about the ontogenetic origin of this capacity. Here we track the development of vocal combinatorial capacity in three species of vocal learners, combining an experimental approach in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with an analysis of natural development of vocal transitions in Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) and pre-lingual human infants. We find a common, stepwise pattern of acquiring vocal transitions across species. In our first study, juvenile zebra finches were trained to perform one song and then the training target was altered, prompting the birds to swap syllable order, or insert a new syllable into a string. All birds solved these permutation tasks in a series of steps, gradually approximating the target sequence by acquiring new pairwise syllable transitions, sometimes too slowly to accomplish the task fully. Similarly, in the more complex songs of Bengalese finches, branching points and bidirectional transitions in song syntax were acquired in a stepwise fashion, starting from a more restrictive set of vocal transitions. The babbling of pre-lingual human infants showed a similar pattern: instead of a single developmental shift from reduplicated to variegated babbling (that is, from repetitive to diverse sequences), we observed multiple shifts, where each new syllable type slowly acquired a diversity of pairwise transitions, asynchronously over development. Collectively, these results point to a common generative process that is conserved across species, suggesting that the long-noted gap between perceptual versus motor combinatorial capabilities in human infants1 may arise partly from the challenges in constructing new pairwise vocal transitions. (Phys.org) —A team of researchers from Japan, Israel and the U.S. has found evidence that suggests birds and human infants learn to string syllables together in roughly the same way: through stepwise improvement. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they taught songbirds to sing a new tune and compared an analysis of the results with sounds made by human infants saved in a database. Journal information: Nature The remarkable process that allows humans to learn to talk as they move through various stages of development has been the focus of a lot of research. To gain some insight into the process, researchers have often turned to the animal world—less complicated systems are easier to study. In this new effort, the researchers looked first at zebra finches. Prior research has led most in the field to believe that songbirds such as finches learn how to voice syllables by listening to the birds around them. After that, the ability to string them together into song is innate—it just happens. In this new research, the team has found evidence that it’s not innate, but is instead the result of a lot of work on the part of the bird.To come to this conclusion the team removed three young finches from others of their kind and taught them to sing in the lab. As expected, the birds picked up syllables rather quickly, mimicking the sounds they were played. Next, they were taught to string two syllables together, such as sound A and sound B. Then, they added another syllable, but introduced it as a pair, BC. Then finally, they asked the birds to sing the whole song, ABC, ABC, etc. But that was only the beginning, next the researchers taught the birds to sing another song that was made up of the same sounds, but in a different order: ACB. In studying how the birds went about learning the new song, the researchers discovered that they did so in stepwise fashion, trying out different parts before putting the whole song together. That proved, the researchers claim, that learning songs in songbirds, is not innate. Left turn in speech research—Key insights in study of zebra finches Play Example of step-wise learning of vocal transitions in a songbird and a human infant. Credit: Ofer Tchernichovski and CHILDES database But that wasn’t the end of the study, the researchers found another team in Japan had been conducting a very similar study with Bengalese finches and came up with nearly identical results. Intrigued, they began looking at sounds made by babies that have been stored in a research database. After much analysis, they discovered that the infants were following a nearly identical path in learning to string syllables together to make words as the birds had done to make songs.The results of this research suggest that the basic underpinnings that lead to language development in people, is similar to song development in birds.
(Phys.org)—An international team of Earth scientists has used eight Earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project to predict the change in the number of hurricanes and other types of tropical storms that would occur over the next fifty years if sulfate aerosols were injected into the atmosphere to mitigate the impact of global warming. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers describe the models and what they showed and suggest that such injections if done on a massive scale, might prove moderately effective—though they note that a different type of aerosol would have to be used to prevent harm to the ozone layer. As the planet keeps warming and efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions enough to make a difference fail, scientist have begun turning to other ways to mitigate problems in the future related to warmer temperatures and higher ocean levels, such as an increase in the number and intensity of hurricanes. One such technique that has been discussed in public forums, is injecting aerosols into the atmosphere in areas where tropical storms form—the shadowing effect would cool the air above the ocean preventing such storms from forming. In this new effort, the researchers used standard oceanographic models to attempt to learn whether such a technique might be viable.After inputting data meant to model an injection of sulfate aerosols over the next 50 years, in two different ways, the researchers found that the idea would likely work, but not as well as might be expected. The first modeled the impact of a volcano eruption-sized amount of aerosol injection while the second sought to mimic an increase in injection amounts to match the projected increase of greenhouse gas emissions. Because the second approach appeared to be the more likely outcome in real life, the researchers used that model to make their predictions. They found that if approximately 10 billion tons of such aerosols were pumped into the atmosphere annually, the result would be a halving of Katrina-sized hurricanes over the next half century. They equate it to mimicking a Pinatubo-sized eruption every two years—something they describe as very expensive, but doable.Of course, they note, there is no chance that such injections will begin anytime soon, because injecting that much sulfate aerosols into the atmosphere would destroy the ozone layer. But, their findings do suggest that if another, safer aerosol could be found, such a technique might prove viable. © 2015 Phys.org Hurricane Isabel (2003) as seen from orbit during Expedition 7 of the International Space Station. Credit: NASA Explore further Researchers find unintended consequences of geoengineering to slow climate change Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences More information: John C. Moore et al. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2015). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510530112AbstractDevastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges. Citation: Models show injecting aerosols into the atmosphere to prevent hurricanes possibly feasible (2015, October 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-aerosols-atmosphere-hurricanes-possibly-feasible.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Science Fiction writers dreamed up the idea of mad scientists creating microorganisms that somehow get out into the world and kill everyone long before modern scientists had the skill to actually do it—but now that technology does exist and along with it fear that in trying to do something good, such as creating a cure for a bacterial disease, researchers could create a monster virus that not only harms patients, but jumps to others and causes serious harm or death. That fear is not ungrounded, as most biological researchers will attest, and that is why some of them are working on making genetically modified organisms safe. The idea is to modify genes to cause the organism to note when some chemical is present, and if so, to self-destruct—a modified virus or bacteria, for example, would die if exposed to a chemical present in the atmosphere. While such an approach is deemed practical by many, others would like to have access to a means for using the same technique on different organisms—those who hold patents on GMOs, for example, would like to be able to kill off their product if it gets into the hands of another entity. To meet that need, the researchers with this new effort came up with two new types of kill switches, which they have named ‘Deadman’ and ‘Passcode.’The Deadman solution is a new take on the kill switch idea from old time trains, a certain chemical must always be present or the modified microbe will die. Passcode, on the other hand is more complex, it combines the idea of a needed chemical and the absence of another. Microbes could be modified to be able to live only in the presence of two different molecules, for example, and the absence of another, or the reverse could be true. The designer could choose whichever “passcode” they desire.The main hurdle facing these new ideas and any others that may come along, of course, is in being able to prove that the microbes they modify will not evolve in ways that overcome the kill switches, either alone or by interacting with native microbes, making such efforts moot and possibly putting everyone at risk. Citation: New type of kill switch to prevent genetically modified microbes from wreaking havoc (2015, December 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-12-genetically-microbes-wreaking-havoc.html More information: Clement T Y Chan et al. ‘Deadman’ and ‘Passcode’ microbial kill switches for bacterial containment, Nature Chemical Biology (2015). DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.1979AbstractBiocontainment systems that couple environmental sensing with circuit-based control of cell viability could be used to prevent escape of genetically modified microbes into the environment. Here we present two engineered safeguard systems known as the ‘Deadman’ and ‘Passcode’ kill switches. The Deadman kill switch uses unbalanced reciprocal transcriptional repression to couple a specific input signal with cell survival. The Passcode kill switch uses a similar two-layered transcription design and incorporates hybrid LacI-GalR family transcription factors to provide diverse and complex environmental inputs to control circuit function. These synthetic gene circuits efficiently kill Escherichia coli and can be readily reprogrammed to change their environmental inputs, regulatory architecture and killing mechanism. Researchers use CRISPR to create ‘kill switch’ for GMOs Journal information: Nature Chemical Biology Explore further (Phys.org)—A combined team of researchers from MIT and Harvard has come up with two new ways to hardwire a kill switch into a genetically modified microorganism to prevent it from going rogue. In their paper published in the journal Nature Chemical Biology, the team describes their technique, why they think it is better than other approaches and the ways it could be used. © 2015 Phys.org
Traditional wares from Punjab such as phulkari embroidery work, the Punjabi jutti, nate-parande, bangles, wooden furniture and inlay items are being sold here in various exhibitions held to mark the upcoming harvest festival of Baisakhi.At the Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts whose lawns have been temporarily transformed into a mini Punjabi village for a Baisakhi Mela. Among the many stalls at the IGNCA lawns is one which features a hawker from Manipur which is stocked with items ranging from phulkari to khanda to funky t-shirts with Punjab style prints on it. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“We are selling stoles with Ura Era Iri print. This is the Punjabi alphabet,” says Awon Marei with a smile. “We generally don’t keep phulkari work in our shops in Chandigarh and Janpath but we have especially got it from the villages in Punjab to sell here. The phulkari work key-ring we have is from Sangrur where a part of the proceeds goes for the education of children there,” says Marei. The shop girl who sports a Punjabi ‘kada’ in her hand says she knows a lot about the Punjabi culture since she has been working with the shop for eight years now. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixJawahar Dhawan, secretary, Punjabi Academy which has organised the event, says that the aim of the event was to to showcase a mini-Punjab. “Even children belonging to Punjabi families in Delhi hardly know anything about their culture. So this event will help people know more about Punjab. We have traditional performances like giddha, bazi, gatka dhadi and bhangra here. Besides that we have called stars like Vatsala Mehra, Harshdeep Kaur, Hardy Sandhu and Ammy Virk,” says Dhawan. Food stall features cooks from Amritsar dishing out specialties like Amritsari kulche and Amritsari macchi fry. Another Baisakhi Mela is being organised by Delhi Tourism at the Garden of Five Senses which will include cultural performances by artists of Sahitya Kala Parishad and Punjabi Academy. Meanwhile, entertainment destination the Kingdom of Dreams has roped in a band of singers led by Bollywood singer Kanika Kapoor of Baby Doll fame for an evening of merriment and music.“I’ll sing my latest numbers as most of them are in Punjabi and if there is a dhol then we’ll try doing few songs with dhol as well. However, we haven’t still decided on the exact numbers and we prefer going with the flow,” Kapoor said. The ‘Punjab Pavilion’ in the Culture Gully of the Kingdom of Dreams is also hosting special offers.
Kolkata: The CBI told the Calcutta High Court on Friday that it needed at least another three months to conclude its probe in the Narada sting operation case. The agency filed a progress report in the investigation in the case before the court on Friday. After hearing the CBI counsel’s submissions, Justice Joymalyo Bagchi directed the central probe agency to file another report after six weeks, stating the progress made in the probe. CBI counsel Amajit De submitted that efforts were on to access the contents of an iPhone, which was allegedly used to carry out the sting operation and the agency would require at least another three months to conclude the probe. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeJustice Bagchi was hearing a petition filed by Trinamool Congress (TMC) MP Aparupa Poddar, seeking quashing of an FIR against her, claiming that she was not an elected representative when the alleged video was shot and as such the provisions of the Prevention of Corruption Act were not applicable against her. In the sting operation, which was claimed to have been carried out in 2014, some persons resembling senior TMC leaders are seen accepting money from the representatives of a fictitious company in return for favours. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe CBI had booked 12 top TMC leaders, including MPs and West Bengal ministers, and an IPS officer in connection with the case. An FIR was lodged for alleged criminal conspiracy under the provisions of the Prevention of Corruption Act dealing with bribery and criminal misconduct. The maximum sentence for these crimes ranges from five to seven years of imprisonment. Those against whom the CBI has registered the FIR include Mukul Roy, who is now in the BJP, and TMC Lok Sabha MPs Saugata Roy, Poddar, Prasun Banerjee and Kakoli Ghosh Dastidar. West Bengal ministers, including Firhad Hakim, Suvendu Adhikari, Sovan Chatterjee and Subrata Mukherjee, have also been named in the FIR. Former state minister Madan Mitra, MLA Iqbal Ahmed and IPS officer Saiyaad Mustafa Hussain Mirza have also been named as accused in the case. The sting operation was carried out by the editor of web portal Naradanews.com, Mathew Samuel, who claimed to have used an iPhone for the purpose. The contents of the phone were subsequently transferred to a laptop and stored in a pen drive.
Kolkata: The first phase of the East-West Metro that will connect Salt Lake Sector V with Salt Lake stadium will be operational by the end of March 2019 or the beginning of April 2019, said Union Minister of State for Heavy Industry and Public Enterprises Babul Supriyo on Monday.The minister was in the city to witness the progress of work for the E-W Metro.The first trial run of two rakes side-by-side on two tracks was held for the first time in his presence. Supriyo also tried his hands at driving a rake that travelled from Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeCity Centre station to Salt Lake Sector V.”Kolkata Metro Railway Corporation Limited (KMRCL), the executing agency wants to ensure that safety and security measures are in place before starting the services. So we have decided not to hurry with the commencement of services,” Supriyo said.”We are installing a modernised signaling system, the software for which is to be imported from Japan. There are several sharp bends and curves in the alignment from Sector V to Salt Lake stadium. The software is expected by the end of December following which the system will be put in place,” he added. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe minister has already held talks with the Union Defence ministry including Nirmala Sitharaman for speeding up the process of procurement of the software. According to sources in KMRCL, there will be five rakes in stock before starting the first phase. “We will begin with two or three and will increase the frequency depending upon the passenger demand,” a senior KMRCL official said. The phase from Salt Lake stadium till Sector V will have six stations and cover a distance of 5.5 km. “The way the work is progressing, I am hopeful that Esplanade to Sealdah phase will be operational by June 2019 that we had announced earlier,” he maintained. The minister also shared that some technical problems have delayed work from Sealdah to Esplanade as there are technical glitches in Esplanade where the East-West Metro will intersect the existing North-South Metro that runs from Noapara to Kavi Subhas. “We are working on overcoming the technical hurdles,” a KMRCL official added. The target for the second phase from Howrah Maidan to Sector V is June 2021.
With the view of strengthening the bond between India and UK , a grand celebration , ‘UK-India year of culture 2017’, took place in the national Capital on Thursday evening with the re-inauguration of British Council Centre by Sir Ciaren Devane, Chief Executive of British Council.The iconic British Council Centre is the epicentre to showcase the strong cultural relationship that India and UK share. Over the time, the British Council keeps on refurbishing its interiors as well as the technology based library, auditorium and the beautiful art gallery according to the highest modern standards. The art gallery demonstrate the variety of British art since 1920 to the present. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Speaking at the event, Ciaren Divane emphasized the necessity to promote cultural exchange for stronger ties between the two nations. He also announced that 2017 will be ‘UK-India year of culture’.He was also accompanied by Sir Dominic Asquith, British High Council Commissioner to India and Alan Gemmell , Director of British Council of India. They both spoke about the traditional and cultural values for connecting both the countries and also gave a glimpse of future projects that will take place within a year. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixOn this event , the renowned personalities of British Council addressed the importance of relationship between India and UK to face the challenges of 21st century.The main purpose behind ‘UK- India 2017 year of celebration’ was to enhance the appreciation of contemporary UK in India and vice versa in order to establish a profound and relevant long standing relationship between the two big culturally heritage countries.Apart from this, ‘UK-India 2017’ will seek to challenge the outdated perception of UK with an inspiring programme, demonstrating the quality of contemporary British art and culture. Gemmell, Director of British Council of India , also launched the trailor of ‘Mix the Play’,a special edition of the popular ‘Mix the City’ platform to promote Shakespeare life. Gemmell said , “‘Mix the Play’ will offer digital audiences an exclusive chance to play director of one of Shakespeare’s most loved plays : A Midsummer Night’s Dream and visitors to ‘Mix the Play’ website will be invited to make a short film from a scene in A Midsummer Night’s Dream.The duration of a scene will be under 3 minutes.” The main purpose behind the project is to make a close interaction between audience and Shakespeare’s play and to educate them about theatre in a fun way. He also added, “We are working closely with the Indian High Commissioner and his team in London to identify how best we can support each other’s programme.” The programme is basically designed for the youth of both nations and with the help of digital technology it will reach a numerous number of audience.The event also saw the launch of some great British artsist work .Last year, Prime Ministers of India and UK, Narendra Modi and David Cameron announced a celebration for the bilateral cultural year to promote deeper connection on India’s 70 years of Independence. Sir Ciaren Devane said, “2017 will see an exciting and surprising UK programmes across in India.”